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Bruno L. S. Ferrette . Closed-area models highlight priority areas for shark conservation, and the need to consider effort reallocation and site selection if marine reserves are to benefit multiple threatened species. Hammerhead Shark in Costa Rican Waters Awakens Alarm Due to Possible Population Reduction Costa Rica’s Pacific hammerhead shark populations could be in a delicate situation, according to recent data from the Costa Rican Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Incopesca). It is found in tropical and warm temperate waters worldwide, inhabiting coastal areas and the continental shelf. Introduction . Photo: Frederic Buyle . The globally critically endangered or vulnerable conservation status of the species. In a matter of three years, hammerhead shark sitings dropped by 94%. We acknowledge that this land and sea was and always will be Aboriginal land and sea. The Great Hammerhead Shark is the largest species of hammerhead in the world. Although their low numbers means they qualify for an ‘Endangered’ listing, they are listed under the ‘Conservation Dependent’ category, which means commercial fishing for this endangered species can continue. A recent study by the University of Costa Rica (UCR) showed the “impact of fishing in national waters”: the diversity and quantity of sharks decrease drastically in fishing areas, but increases in protected areas. They are threatened by commercial fishing, mainly for the shark fin trade. Australia is a signatory to the convention. The information reflects only the sharks that are caught and landed in ports, but this is not necessarily the total catch. In six years (2012-2018), 592 hammerheads sharks have been culled at an average of 99 per year (6). (Print Ready with Crop Marks), Fish icon by Sergey Demuskin from the Noun Project. The Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) is listed as globally endangered on the IUCN’s Red List. By contrast, the IUCN, an international body that assesses the conservation status of wildlife, assessed great and scalloped hammerheads as critically endangered and smooth hammerheads as vulnerable (3, 4). The trade in these species is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) convention. Sharks River White Grey Nurse Sawfish Whale Hammerhead [toc] Assessment of Eligibility for Threatened Species Listing The status of three species of hammerhead sharks is being considered by the Threatened Species Scientific Committee for possible listing as threatened under Part 13 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). This seemingly protects the interests of commercial fishing at the expense of our environment and wildlife – by allowing continued fishing of threatened species if a plan to manage the capture of the species is in place. To know the real impact on the population, biologists analyze a piece of data called “catch per unit of effort”. Hammerhead Shark in Costa Rican Waters Awakens Alarm Due to Possible Population... 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There may be captured sharks that are discarded before reaching the port, explained the expert. Are Hammerhead Sharks Endangered? Scalloped Hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) is an endangered species which its populations have been declining globally including in Indonesia, the world's top shark fishing country. ‘Conservation Dependent’ is an odd category created specifically for fish. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39385/0, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39386/0, https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/management/shark-meshing-bather-protection-program, https://data.qld.gov.au/dataset/shark-control-program-shark-catch-statistics, https://taronga.org.au/conservation-and-science/australian-shark-attack-file, Scalloped Hammerhead – Critically Endangered (IUCN); Conservation Dependent (EPBC Act 1999), Smooth Hammerhead – Vulnerable (IUCN); not listed (EPBC Act 1999). “Costa Rica must immediately prohibit the capture and retention of the hammerhead shark, as well as the domestic possession and commercialization of its parts if the country sincerely wants to save this emblematic species from its imminent extinction,” said Arauz. The hammerhead sharks are a group of sharks that form the family Sphyrnidae, so named for the unusual and distinctive structure of their heads, which are flattened and laterally extended into a "hammer" shape called a cephalofoil. This would be a “serious” practice, as reported by the Scientific Advisory Committee of Incopesca. The Great hammerhead is the most recently evolved species of shark. The national premiere of the Documentary: "Costa Rica por la Senda del Boyero", a special on the... Like you, we are tired of corporate media that is politically driven and one sided. The great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) is the largest species of hammerhead shark. We can’t do this without you! “These data are very worrying because they are signs of overfishing and that the population is collapsing,” he said. Incopesca data provides a clue: the population could be at risk. Hammerhead sharks can grow up to a length of 20 feet and weigh around 1,000 pounds. While in 2017, Incopesca recorded the landing of 7,556 hammerhead shark bodies between both species, for 2019, only 448 bodies were landed in total. Whitefin hammerhead (Sphyrna couardi) – Unevaluated; Carolina hammerhead (Sphyrna gilberti) – Unevaluated Since 1986, Dr. Baum’s analysis of logbook data suggests a population decline of 89% in hammerhead sharks, 79% in great white sharks, 65% in tiger sharks, 80% in thresher sharks, 60% in blue sharks, and 70% in mako sharks. This even though the three species that inhabit the country are threatened with extinction. Great and scalloped hammerheads are already listed as threatened species in NSW and it is illegal to fish for them in NSW state waters (5). Genetic diversity (θ), effective population size (N e), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by applying classical and … Mar. We study the population dynamics of sharks through quantitative demographic methods and assess the status of shark stocks through a variety of stock assessment methodologies. Until a week ago the export of hammerhead sharks was allowed in Costa Rica, following a decree of the Solís Rivera administration in 2016. The life history characteristic of hammerheads (long lived, late maturing with few offspring) making them slow to recover from excessive fishing pressure. The largest species is the Great hammerhead. Hammerheads vary in size. According to SRP, the landings of the species scalloped hammerhead recorded an interannual fall … Don\\\'t forget to follow @theCRNews on instagram! More information: Christopher J. Any trade of CITES listed species must conform to a Non-Detriment Finding (NDF) which contains management guidelines to ensure the species survival is not threatened by trade. Hammerhead sharks reproduce slowly – it can take 15-17 years to reach sexual maturity. The Institution requested “the improvement of fishing inspections, in such a way that the commercialization of these sharks is not allowed, if they do not meet the size of first sexual maturity”, according to the Non-Harmful Extraction Opinion 2020-2021. These methods are outdated and ineffective – in 2006 a fatal shark bite occurred on a drumlined beach in Amity Point, QLD (7). A 2016 decree led Incopesca to categorize them as a “commercial species”. However, the Supreme Court repealed this decree and its related decisions on November 16th of this year, so now a scientific committee must decide whether to allow the export of this species. Moreover, using hammerhead sharks as a case study, we seek to illustrate how aspects of specialization may increase the vulnerability of a marine predator to human exploitation, resulting in a de facto evolutionary trap that What are some of the most amazing facts about Hammerhead sharks?! Restricted connectivity and population genetic fragility in a globally endangered Hammerhead Shark Danillo Pinhal . Scalloped hammerheads are estimated to have lost up to ~80% of their original population in QLD waters (2). We’re Creating a Conscious alternative news network that we feel the world needs and we need your help! Due to shy nature and migratory habits of the great hammerheads the conservation efforts are quite ineffective and the population … population declines seen in hammerhead sharks are caus-ally related. The Australian Marine Conservation Society acknowledges the Traditional Custodians of this land and sea country, and pay our respects to their Elders past and present. Of the eight known species, three inhabit Costa Rican waters under some degree of threat. That is, out of every thousand hooks cast, how many sharks are caught. 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